of problems maps the positions of the signs of the zodiac in relation to the earth. The

second set of problems maps the positions of the various planets in relation to the

zodiacal signs.

zodiacal signs are calculated from

are calculated from

experienced by beginners arises from failing to remember that the kind of time used

for mapping the zodiacal signs is not the same as the time used for mapping the

planets.

are derived from still a third kind of time, called

necessary first to find the Local Mean Time before either of the other kinds of time

can be ascertained, and therefore before either sign positions or planet positions can

be computed, I call the Local Mean Time the

calculated. Because this Sidereal Time of Birth is the key to the positions of the

zodiacal signs, I call Finding the Sidereal Time of Birth the

PROBLEM.

Time Interval is calculated. Because this Equivalent Greenwich Mean Time Interval

is the key to the positions of the planets, I call Finding the Equivalent Greenwich

Mean Time Interval of Birth the

know what a horoscope is, what data is required to erect it, the meaning of the

symbols commonly employed, and how to add and subtract both Longitude and

Time. These can be conveniently handled as

sequence of the work into four well marked divisions that are based upon)

PROBLEM,

accustomed to them some of these steps will be passed over so rapidly as hardly to be

noticed; yet unless short cuts are used these eleven steps are always taken in the

erection of a complete horoscope.

place may be east, or it may be west, of a standard meridian, or there may be other

variations. In this one lesson I have taken into consideration all the various

conditions and circumstances an astrologer is apt to meet, and have formulated rules

and given examples having reference to them all. You will find twenty-seven rules.

erecting a horoscope is a formidable task. Yet as a matter of fact, in the erection of

any one chart only a part of the rules are used. Even the following of the eleven

necessary steps quickly becomes almost automatic, and you will soon do most of the

calculations mentally about as quickly as you can conveniently enter the results in

the map.

the knowledge that the signs are placed in the map from the Sidereal Time of Birth,

that the planets are placed in the map from Equivalent Greenwich Mean Time

Interval of Birth, that both of these different times are computed from the Local

Mean Time of Birth, and the use of addition, subtraction, and common sense.

the heavens showing the positions of the planets and zodiacal signs as viewed from

some particular place at some particular time. There are, therefore, three distinct

factors necessary for the erection of a horoscope of birth of a child or other event:

planets may be found in an Astronomical Ephemeris for the year of birth.

Astronomical ephemerides commonly cover but a single year each, and may be had

for each year since 1850.

found by consulting a Table of Houses for the Latitude of the place. A Table of

Houses is good for any year, and need only approximate the latitude of birth.

table of houses for several important places, and a table of proportional logarithms.

by consulting a common atlas or geography and finding its Latitude and Longitude.

Longitude is expressed in ° (degrees), ' (minutes), and " (seconds) E (east) or W

(west) of Greenwich. Latitude is expressed in °, ', and ", N (north) or S (south) of the

equator. Where unusual precision is required geocentric latitude is used, but the

latitude of the common map is precise enough for all ordinary purposes.

Unless the time used is known, a correct chart cannot be erected. This matter of what

kind of time was used at any given date is of utmost importance, but is so complicated

that it requires a special volume for treatment. Such a volume is published entitled,

World Daylight Saving Time.

the time of birth is given in terms of local mean time it becomes necessary to convert

the recorded time into local mean time.

pertinent information such as declinations.

place having a different longitude should have a

different time. As this is a nuisance, Standard Time

is now used in most parts of the world. In the

United States the country is divided into four

Standard Time Zones each containing 15�

longitude. The Standard Meridian for Eastern

Time is 75°, or 5 hours, west; the Standard

Meridian for Central Time is 90°, or 6 hours, west;

the Standard Meridian for Mountain Time is 105°,

or 7 hours, west; and the Standard Meridian for

Pacific Time is 120°, or 8 hours, west. Eastern

Canada has a further zone, called Atlantic Time,

which is but 4 hours west.

a standard meridian should keep the same time. As

a matter of fact, railroad divisions and natural

boundaries greatly influence the actual place

where time changes are made. Furthermore, the

dividing line where such changes of time take

place has not remained constant, but has shifted

along with railroad changes and the development

of certain regions. The map on at the front of this lesson

(page 2), gives the zones and places of time change

as they exist at the present time. But if a birth is

near these places of time change, much pains

should be exercised to ascertain just what time was

used in recording the birth.

States, theoretically, Nov. 18, 1883, at Noon; and

in Great Britain in 1880. Actually it was not used in

many places until considerably later. Previous to

these dates each place used its own time, the Local

Mean Time. On all dates after the adoption of

necessary to convert this standard Time to Local Mean Time.

saving time was adopted in many countries. It was in general use in the U. S. during

1918 and 1919, and is still used in some sections of the country. As if this were not

confusion enough, in some towns in the eastern U. S. at the present, there are two

kinds of time in use. Daylight Saving Time has been made legal, but as it so

complicates schedules, the railroads continue to use Standard Time. To get the time

of birth right, inquiry must be made as to which time was used in the record.

from March 30 to October 26 but where continued the change date varies. When the

birth is timed by Daylight Saving, it becomes necessary to subtract one hour from the

clock time to get the Standard Time. Then in the usual way, Standard Time may be

the Julian Calendar was used up to the time of

the Revolution in 1917. Even here there are

exceptions, as some places on the Black Sea

used the calendar of their neighbors. When,

however, the date is given Old Style, as it was

reckoned in Russia, it must be converted into

the Gregorian Calendar, or New Style, because

the ephemeris is calculated New Style. This is

done by adding 12 days to Old Style dates

occurring in the 19th Century, and by adding

13 days to Old Style dates since 1900. Thus,

Jan. 2, 1916, Old Style, is the same as Jan. 15,

1916, New Style. The Horoscope, consequently,

should be erected for Jan. 15.

the signs that always occur opposite each other.

for each sign, the number of each sign in the zodiac (not its vibratory number), and the signs

that are always opposite each other. This table should be

and--with the exception of the Sun which is given first because most important--the

order of their speed through the zodiac, the Moon being fastest in motion. This table

also should be well memorized.

Longitude, Right Ascension, Mean

Time and Sidereal Time.

is not employed in erecting a birthchart, nor in progressing the planets.

subtract 60' from it, the remainder being ' and each 60' being called 1° and added to

the ° column. Add the °, including that carried over from the ' column, and if the sum

exceeds 360° subtract 360 from it. The remainder being °, and each 360° being called

a circle and discarded.

Newfoundland, with a long. 52° 42' W to find how far in long. they are apart.

borrow 1' from the ' column, and calling it 60" add to the minuend " column. Subtract

' from ', and if the minuend be too small borrow 1° from the ° column and calling it

60' add to the ' in the minuend. Subtract ° from ° and if the minuend be too small add

the full circle of 360° to the ° in the minuend to make subtraction possible.

122° 26' W., how far is it in long. to Buenos Aires with a long. of 58° 18' W.?

12h, 12h should be subtracted from it, calling the difference P.M. of the same day if

A.M. was given, or A.M. of the following day if P.M. was given.

6h 23m 52s later.

8h 42m 35s later.

minuend be too small in h, 12h must be added to it, and the difference is then P.M. of

the day before if A.M. time is given, or A.M. of the same day if P.M. time is given.

10h 38m 56s earlier.

9h 21m 58s earlier.

when the sum is in excess of 24h, 24h must be subtracted, the remainder being the

required S.T.; and when the minuend is too small to permit subtraction, 24h must first

be added to it.

the sum exceeds 30°, subtract 30° from it, each 30° being called One Sign and added

to the sign column. If the signs exceed 12, subtract 12S from the sum, being careful to

note that Pisces is both sign 12, and sign 0.

12S

longitude except that if the minuend be too small in S, 12S must be added to it, and if

too small in °, 30° (1S) must be borrowed

the Answer

Mean Time.

successive transits of the sun's semi-diameter across the same meridian, measures 24

hours. In the complete revolution the 360° of geographical longitude measuring the

earth's circumference pass under the sun at meridian. Dividing 360° by 24, gives 15°

that pass under the sun at meridian every hour. Dividing this hour of 60 minutes by 15

gives 4 minutes as the time required for 1° longitude to pass under the sun at

meridian.

at Greenwich, are exact multiples of 15° E. or W., there being a difference of just 1h

in time between successive Standard Meridians. A glance at the maps at the front

of this lesson (pages 1 and 2), will indicate these various meridians and time zones.

Meridians the Local Mean Time (L.M.T.) is the same as the time recorded by the

clock. But since standard time came into use, if the place is either E. or W. of a

standard meridian, the clock time must be converted into L.M.T.

Clocks east of a Standard Meridian are SLOW. And

as 1° longitude is the equivalent of 4m time, as

shown above, the number of ° E. or W. of the

Standard Meridian may be converted into time

merely by multiplying by 4 and calling the result

minutes.

L.M.T. at a place west of a Standard Meridian

the result minutes, multiply the minutes by 4 to get

seconds, and subtract from standard time.

L.M.T. San Francisco is 122° W. 26" long. The Pacific Standard Meridian is 120° W.

Difference in long. is 2° 26'.

Meridian

minutes by 4 to get seconds, and add to the standard time.

New York is 73° W 57' long. The Eastern Standard Meridian is 75° W 00'.

Difference in long. is 1° 3'. 1° 3' X 4 gives 4 minutes 12 seconds.

Time of Birth.

are 360° in the celestial equator. To measure any circle a starting point is necessary.

The starting point for measuring along the earth's equator is the Meridian of

Greenwich. The starting point for measuring along the celestial equator is the point

where the sun crosses it each year moving north in the spring of the year. This point is

the vernal equinox called 0° Aries.

or in h, m, and s. So, likewise, the distance E. or W. of 0° Aries may be expressed in °,

', and ", and so expressed is called Right Ascension (R.A.). Or it may be expressed in

h, m, and s, and then is called Sidereal Time (S.T.). R.A. in the heavens corresponds

to geographical longitude. Sidereal Time is the distance along the celestial equator

from 0° Aries expressed in Time. The S.T. at noon of any day represents the distance

of the point on the celestial equator from 0° Aries that is on the Mid Heaven (M.C.) at

noon of that day.

whole celestial equator must pass the M.C. in 24h, it is easy to calculate the

S.T.--distance from 0° Aries--that is on the M.C. at any moment of that day. The

INTERVAL of time since noon added to the S.T. at noon, or the INTERVAL of time

before noon subtracted from the S.T. at noon, must give the required S.T. This is the

exact distance of the point on the M.C. from 0° Aries.

the year in which the date occurs.

for that year and day and to the S.T. there given for noon add the L.M.T., or

INTERVAL after noon. For greater precision see correction below.

ephemeris for that year and day and from the S.T. there given for noon subtract the

INTERVAL between the L.M.T. and noon. For greater precision see correction

below.

precision is required a correction of 9.86s (roughly 10s) per hour must be made both

for longitude from Greenwich, and for the INTERVAL between L.M.T. and noon.

The separate correction for L.M.T. is best performed by always ADDING 9.86s per

hour to the INTERVAL between L.M.T. and

noon. The separate correction for longitude

may best be performed by adding 9.86s

per hour to S.T. if west, and

subtracting 9.86s per hour from S.T.

if east, longitude.

BOTH corrections at one operation

after finding the E.G.M.T.

9.86s per hour that the INTERVAL

E.G.M.T. is past noon to the S.T., or

subtracting 9.86s per hour that the

INTERVAL E.G.M.T. is before noon from

the S.T. See Chapter 8.

separately.

the Sidereal Time.

to find the Sidereal Time.

Degrees Upon House Cusps.

numbered in example chart No. 1 at the front of this lesson (page 6).

Opposite this time, or its nearest approximate, will be found the sign and degree to be

placed on each house cusp from 10th to 3rd. When these have been entered into the

chart on their appropriate cusps, place the same degree of the opposite sign on the

opposite house cusp. Signs opposite each other are given in Table I.

signs and degrees in the chart.

given in Raphael's ephemeris I find the nearest S.T. given as 0h 22m 02s. Opposite

this S.T. under column marked 10, I find 6°, and looking up this column I find this to

be of the sign Aries. I therefore place 6° Aries on the cusp of the 10th house in the

chart.

12th house cusp, 23° 24' Cancer on the 1st house cusp, or Ascendant, 13° Leo on the

2nd house cusp, and 6° Virgo on the 3rd house cusp. And I place them thus in the

chart.

opposite Aries I use 6° Libra. For the 5th house cusp I use 13° Scorpio, as Scorpio is

opposite Taurus; on the 6th I use 21° Sagittarius because Sagittarius is opposite

Gemini; on the 7th I use 23° 24' Capricorn because Capricorn is opposite Cancer; on

the 8th I use 13° Aquarius because Aquarius is opposite Leo; and on the 9th 1 use 6°

Pisces because Pisces is always opposite Virgo. Example chart No. I has been

corrected by Rule 13.

occurs other signs are missing. These may be found by counting the signs in their

regular order. They should then be entered on

S.T. of birth. Then (a): (b) :: (c): ?

the nearest S.T. add; if less, subtract. Example 13. To find the exact ' on the

Ascendant when the S.T. of birth at New York is 0h 21m 16s.

desired to progress the positions of the chart to determine WHEN energy from a certain planet will be

added to a group of thought-cells in sufficient volume to attract a specific event, it is essential that the

Ascendant and Midheaven, which are treated as planets, should be calculated to the exact minute of

zodiacal longitude.

inner terms are given multiply one by the other and divide the product by the outer

term. When the two outer terms are given multiply one by the other and divide the

product by the inner term. The result is the answer. Such problems are taught in

grammar school, and are essential to astrological work.

44 X 46 equals 2024

2024 divided by 221 equals 9'

adding 12h to the S.T. and using the degrees thus found, but placing opposite signs on

the house cusps. Detailed examples of this will be found in Chapter 8.

E.G.M.T. INTERVAL

and multiply the ' by 4, calling the product seconds. Convert into hours and minutes.

from Greenwich.

remainder. 228s divided by 60 equals 3m, plus 48s remainder. 4h 52m plus 3m 48s

equals 4h 55m 48s. Ans.

from Greenwich.

time to the L.M.T., when the place is east of Greenwich subtract the difference in

time from the L.M.T.

W. (New York), to find the E.G.M.T.

(Berlin), to find the E.G.M.T.

W. (Los Angeles), to find the E.G.M.T.

PLUS INTERVAL, or the number of hours and minutes before noon, called a

MINUS INTERVAL.

plus 10h 32m, of (c) is plus 0h 43m. But if the E.G.M.T. is before noon, it must be

subtracted from noon to get the Interval, and the result is then a Minus Interval. Thus

in the above example (b) find the Interval.

difficult problems in proportion. The Constant Logarithm is the number found in a

table of proportional logarithms corresponding to the E.G.M.T. Interval.

logarithms and find the figure corresponding to the E.G.M.T. Interval.

32m. Looking in the table of proportional logarithms in the back of Raphael's

ephemeris I look down the column marked 10h until it intersects with the horizontal

column marked 32m. There I find .3576. Ans.

Motion of Any Planet.

latter part of Raphael's ephemeris.

two days between which the E.G.M.T. occurs and subtract the less longitude from the

greater in the regular order of the zodiacal signs.

date (b), the minutes Pluto moves between these two positions (c), and the motion of Pluto during

required interval (d). Then (a): (b) :: (c) (d).

Thus using the Pluto ephemeris, during the 30 days (a) from December 16, 1919, to January 15, 1920,

Pluto moves 35' (c). The interval between January 2 and January 15 is 13 days (b). 35 multiplied by

13 and divided by 30 gives 15' as the motion of Pluto during this interval. As it is retrograde, add

these 15' to the place of Pluto January 15, and it gives the longitude of Pluto January 2, 1920, as 6

Cancer 36 R.

two days between which the E.G.M.T. occurs, and if both are either N. or S.

declination subtract the less from the greater; but if one is N. and the other S.

declination, add the given declinations. If the declination is given only every 2nd or

3rd day the result must be divided by 2 or by 3 to get the daily motion.

Proportional Logarithm of the

Daily Motion of a Planet.

proportional logarithms and find the ° and ' corresponding to its daily motion.

motion (example 18) 14° 48' 9". Neglecting the 9" I consult the table of logarithms in

Raphael's ephemeris and where the column 14° intersects with 48' I find .2099. Ans.

Motion of Any Planet for the

E.G.M.T. Interval.

Constant Logarithm to the Logarithm of the Daily Motion. This gives the log. of

distance traveled during the Interval.

plus interval of 10h 32m?

Longitude of the Planets at Birth.

travel for the interval to the place given in the ephemeris for noon. When the Interval

is minus, subtract its travel for the interval from the place given in the ephemeris for

noon.

reverse this, and subtract for plus interval, and add for minus interval.

plus E.G.M.T. Interval of 10h 32m.

of the Planets at Birth.

for the interval to the noon declination if the declination is increasing, subtract if

decreasing. When the Interval is minus, subtract the declination for the interval from

the noon declination if the declination is increasing, add if decreasing. If the

declination changes from N to S or S to N, this must be allowed for.

Interval of 2h 14m

always that of the Sun when it is in the same sign and degree.

Fortune

and minute, and use this declination

declination N 21° 23', which is the Answer.

Zodiacal Longitude of the Fixed

Stars, the Dragon's Head and Tail,

and the Part of Fortune.

purpose. As they move only 1° in about 72 years their places may be had by

inspection. The house positions of the stars, however, for those having considerable

latitude, require the use of trigonometrical calculations.

23° 13' rises? Looking in Dalton's "Sixteen Principle Stars" I find on Jan. 2, 1920,

the star Procyon in Cancer 24° 41' 8".

The North Node is calculated from its place as given in the ephemeris as if it were a

planet, and the South Node is always the same degree of the opposite sign.

32m. Looking in ephemeris for Jan. 2, I find the North Node in Scorpio 22° 17' . The

South node, therefore, is Taurus 22° 17' .

of this lesson (page 4). Find (b) difference between nearest long. In table and long. Of Angle. Find (c) difference

between declinations corresponding to nearest and next nearest long. In table. Problem by Logs: (b)

minus (a) plus (c) equals (d) -- correction to be made. Add correction to nearest decl. In table if

nearest long. Is smaller than long. Of Angle; if larger, subtract.

Ascendant by longitude as the Moon is removed from the Sun by longitude.

longitudes of the Ascendant and Moon subtract the zodiacal

longitude of the Sun. This difference is the longitude of the Part of

Fortune.

10h 32m.

in the Chart.

placed opposite its symbol in a column at one side of the chart.

Chart No. 1 at the front of this lesson.

Ascendant.

hence if a planet has less degrees of the same sign it must be placed above the house

cusp in the 12th, but if it has more degrees it must be placed in the chart below the

Asc. Then proceed around the chart in the order of sequence of the houses entering

the planets in their signs, placing those having less degrees than the house cusp next

back toward the Ascendant, and those having more degrees than the house cusp in the

house farther removed from the Asc. following the proper order of sequence of

houses.

be placed in the chart in the same manner.

be entered by R.A. and Dec. (See Dalton's Fixed Stars.)

event, The Brotherhood of Light Research Department has found no instance where

a Fixed Star, the Moon's Nodes, or the Part of Fortune has been required to explain

either the character of an individual or any event that has happened to him, we make

no use of them. It must be remembered that the positions in a chart of Uranus,

Neptune and Pluto were unknown to earlier astrologers, who doubtless became

aware of influences apart from the seven naked eye orbs, and accounted for them as

best they could.